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  • v1.0.x Changes

    "Anchor Steam", the next Rajawali version contains significant changes to the API. Here's what's new:

    Android Studio and Continuous Integration

    ๐Ÿš€ The project has been migrated to Android Studio and the Gradle build system. Along with this, we have setup builds with Travis CI. Build status badges have been added to the Readme to indicate the status. We are currently in the process of deploying the project to Maven.

    ๐Ÿ“ฆ Package Name

    ๐Ÿš€ In preparation for deployment into Maven, the package name of the Rajawali library has changed. The old packages rajawali and rajawali.framework are now org.rajawali3d, which is the Maven group id.

    No more RajawaliFragment or RajawaliActivity

    ๐Ÿ‘€ RajawaliSurfaceView and RajawaliTextureView are the classes which replace RajawaliFragment, RajawaliSupportFragment and RajawaliActivity. They extend a common interface, IRajawaliSurface. This was done to simplify development of the framework by reducing the duplication of life cycle related code as much as possible. While you may need to take a few extra steps to bring Rajawali into your Fragment/Activity, these steps have been simplified and made more consistent across the multiple use cases. What follows is an explanation of setting up these views in a Fragment, though it would be no different for an Activity. For more details, see Using RajawaliSurfaceView and RajawaliTextureView


    ๐ŸŽ A new renderer class, RajawaliDebugRenderer has been added. It has an additional constructor parameter for a RajawaliGLDebug.Builder instance which will configure the debug behavior. You can enable automatic glError() calls after every GL call, enforcment of all GL calls coming from the same thread and argument name printing for GL calls. With the addition of this class, RajawaliRenderer no longer checks for GL errors at the end of each frame. This is for performance reasons. Of course in your own implementation you could still check at the end of each frame if you so chose.

    โž• Additionally, the org.rajawali3d.util.debugvisualizer package has been added. It contains several classes which allow you to easily add visuals to your scene for things like camera frustrum, lights, bounding volumes, etc.

    OpenGL ES 3.0

    ๐Ÿ‘ Rajawali will automatically determine if a device supports OpenGL ES 3.x. If it does, Rajawali will automatically request a GLES 3 context rather than 2. If the device does not support GLES 3, Rajawali will request a GLES 2 surface. The GLES 3 feature set supported Rajawali is currently minimal, but the following has been implemented:

    • ๐Ÿ‘ ETC2 Texture compression. All formats of ETC2 compression except for the 3 sRGB formats are currently supported. At present, we have been unable to find information relating to the internal format codes of the PKM file header for the sRGB formats. When that information is available, a very small modification will be all that is required to add support for these files. The Etc2Texture class is the Rajawali native wrapper for these textures. It has the added benefit of accepting ETC1 textures.


    Across the library we have tried to reduce the ammount of garbage that is generated. Animations now generate little to no garbage, even when run for very long periods of time.

    Thread Safety

    To eliminate a number of issues which stemmed from trying to change scene contents in the middle of a render cycle, a task queue system has been added to Rajawali. You no longer have direct access to lists such as mChildren. Helper methods such as addChild() exist and will automatically queue everything for you.

    Asyncronous Loading

    ๐Ÿ‘€ To fully take advantage of RajawaliScene (see the Scenes section below), it is necessary to be able to load models on a background thread while rendering is active. To fascilitate this, asyncronous loading options have been added to RajawaliRenderer. Your code can now request an asyncronous load of any ALoader implementation (your own included) and receive a notification of success or failure via the IAsyncLoaderCallback interface. See The wiki explanation or Rajawali Examples for more information.

    Scene Frame Callbacks

    ๐Ÿ‘€ Scene frame callbacks were added to provide a easy way for user code to tie into the render cycle while receiving timing information about the scene. These callbacks receive the typical frame delta time (measured in seconds), used by the animation system, as well as an additional parameter - the rendering elapsed time (measured in nanoseconds). For more information, see The Wiki

    Lazy VBO creation

    ๐Ÿ— In the past, all VBOs were created immediately in the Object3D constructor. This is still the default behavior, however a new constructor has been added with a boolean parameter which allows for the creation of these VBOs to be deferred until the first render pass. If they are deferred, the initial frame may incur a slight delay, but in most cases this will not be noticable. Deferred creation is useful if you would like to build a complete RajawaliScene before having a running RajawaliRenderer.

    Conversion to double precision

    Rajawali has been converted to double precision internally. Some of the public API has changed as a result of this switch, however it is not significant and likely affects only advanced users. Most notably the method signature of the render() methods. This was done to eliminate some bugs being caused by floating point roundoff errors since current and emerging devices have little ๐ŸŽ to no performance loss. There will be a slight increase in memory consumption but it should be negligible compared to texture consumption. ๐Ÿ‘€ For more information see issue #988.

    ๐Ÿ‘ Since the android.opengl.Matrix class only supports float arrays, the class has been copied as rajawali.math.Matrix and converted to use doubles. To avoid needless casting, you should utilize this class instead. The only change to the class is to utilize double precision floating point numbers instead of single precision, however a few native methods had to be implemented in Java. Similarly, android.opengl.GLU ๐Ÿ‘ only supports float math, so the class has been copied as rajawali.util.GLU and convert to use doubles.

    Position and orientation information are now handled as double precision, however the object geometry and any colors are not. This is done primarily to reduce the overhead of casting a lot of data from double to float on each frame, but there is also no need for it, ๐Ÿ†“ and it doesn't come free. Promoting these to double will happen automatically anytime they are used in math with a double and because they ๐Ÿ‘ป are provided to the library in float form, we do not loose any precision this way. The one exception to this is if you are dynamically modifying the geometry data at run time which is an advanced process with a lot of other implications anyway.


    ๐Ÿ”จ The Number3D class has been refactored into Vector3 which is way more appropriate. This will most likely affect a lot of your code. Furthermore, the class has been entirely ๐Ÿ”จ refactored to be more consistent and reduce the amount of garbage it generates. The public API has been modified considerably but should be much more robust, clean and useful. ๐Ÿ“ฆ It has also been moved to the rajawali.math.vector package.

    • Operations which set their result on the calling object are named/documented accordingly.
    • Operations which create new objects are named/documented accordingly.


    ๐Ÿ”จ The Vector2D has been refactored into Vector2 which falls in line with the new Vector3 class. ๐Ÿ“ฆ It has also been moved to the rajawali.math.vector package.


    ๐Ÿ”จ The Number3D class has been refactored to Vector3. This name is much more appropriate.


    ๐Ÿ”จ The Quaternion class has been overhauled and refactored similarly to the Vector3 class. This may affect a lot of your code, depending on your use of quaternions. It has been made more consistent and efficient, reducing garbage. Other noteworthy changes include:

    • The method Quaternion#fromRotationMatrix(float[]) has become Quaternion#fromMatrix(Matrix4).
    • The method Quaternion#unitInverse() has been removed as it was the same as Quaternion#conjugate()
    • Operations which set their result on the calling object are named/documented accordingly.
    • Operations which create new objects are named/documented accordingly.


    ๐Ÿšš The AngleAxis class has been removed. It was essentially an incomplete Quaternion class and was not being ๐Ÿ‘‰ used anywhere in the library or in the examples project.


    Previously, the Matrix4 class was incomplete and never used internal to the library. The class has been filled out and the library has been switched over to using it internally. This was done for clarity, concise code and as the ground ๐Ÿ‘ป work for being able to add more complex features to the library. An exception to this is skeletal animation, which still uses double arrays. This with absolute certainty will require you to change some of your code. At a bare minimum, common method signatures have changed, but only in their data types.

    While you can still use float or double arrays for matrices if you prefer, Matrix4 has been implemented in an efficient manner which should not produce extra garbage and will dramatically simplify code which performs lots of matrix operations.


    ๐Ÿšš The orientation, rotation and look at functionality of ATransformable3D have been modified. Look at tracking has the ability to operate automatically now. To enable, set your look at point via ATransformable3D.setLookAt(Vector3 look) and call ATransformable3D.enableLookAt(). At this point, anytime your object moves, it will automatically re-orient itself to look at its look at point.

    ๐Ÿšš The model matrix is now the responsibility of ATransformable3D. Calculation is handled on an as needed basis now, saving processing time. When an object is moved/rotated, its model matrix is marked as dirty. The next time it is requested in a render loop, the matrix will then be re-calculated. By marking as dirty, we save multiple recalculations when an object has several transformations applied between frames.

    ๐Ÿ”’ Finally, the orientation of all ATransformable3D objects is defined solely as a quaternion. This eliminates the ambiguity of the old system, provides no chance of gimble lock and generally increases efficiency. The previous model matrix calculation required 100 floating point operations and 4 loops. The new method requires only 27 floating point operations. View matrix calculation has seen similar improvements.


    BaseObject3D has been renamed to Object3D.

    โšก๏ธ FPSUpdateListener

    โšก๏ธ FPSUpdateListener has been renamed to OnFPSUpdateLister.

    ๐Ÿ“œ Parsers

    ๐Ÿ“ฆ All parser classes which were previously called xxParser are now called Loaderxx. For example, OBJParser is now LoaderOBJ. They have also been moved from the parser package to loader.

    GL State

    0๏ธโƒฃ To help increase ultimate frame rate, a default GL state has been implemented and set once at GL surface creation. BaseObject3D instances which are transparent, double-sided or otherwise differ in their culling automatically change the state for their render and return the state when they are done. This means the GL state is not managed as efficiently as it could be, however it is a dramatic ๐Ÿ‘Œ improvement over the previous method of explicitly declaring the state on each render for each object and has in some testing shown a 6 FPS improvement for ~12%.


    A new class, RajawaliScene has been added which fully encompasses everything to render a scene. Essentially everything you would have previously done in RajawaliRenderer#initScene() now fits in a RajawaliScene and you can have multiple instances of RajawaliScene and feely switch between them, allowing you to do all sorts of cool things such as loading a new scene in the background, showing different areas, etc. ๐Ÿ‘€ For more info please see Tutorial 31.

    Multiple Cameras

    You can now use multiple cameras in Rajawali and freely switch between them in a thread safe manner.

    public void nextCamera() {
        if (getCurrentCamera().equals(mCamera1)) {
        } else {

    Texture Management & Materials

    Materials & textures have become much more flexible. Please check this wiki pages for all the changes:

    Post Processing

    ๐Ÿ“š The old filter system has been replaced with a new modular post processing framework. This allows for complex effects based on frame buffer objects and multi-pass rendering. The documentation of details of this will be a work in progress. In the meantime, the examples app is the best place to start.


    Lights aren't added directly to objects anymore. In Anchor Steam they have to be added to the scene:



    "Paths" now have the more appropriate name "Curves". The reason for this is that curves aren't necessarily paths. ๐Ÿšš The have also been moved from rajawali.animation to rajawali.curves. These existing classes have been renamed:

    • CatmullRomPath3D: CatmullRomCurve3D
    • ISpline3D: ICurve3D
    • BezierPath3D: CubicBezier3D

    Some new classes have been added:

    • CompoundCurve3D: This is a container for an n number of curves of any type.
    • LinearBezierCurve3D: A linear bezier curve. Basically just a straight line. This is useful for compound curves.
    • QuadraticBezierCurve3D: A quadratic bezier curve. This type of Bezier curve take only one control point instead of two.
    • ๐Ÿ’… SVGPath: takes an SVG-style path string and creates a CompoundCurve3D. Still a work in progress.
    • LogarithmicSpiral3D : A spiral curve, often refered to as a "Golden Spiral" or "Nautalus Spiral"
    • ArchimedeanSpiral3D : A spiral curve, with several variants based on a constant exponent.
  • v0.9 Changes

    July 06, 2013

    ๐Ÿ‘ Please use this tagged branch for all production work. For the brave, you can use the tip branch; however, anything that works in tip works completely by accident and is not supported in the issue tracking outside of development discussions.